Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus (PTDM)

What is Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus (PTDM)?

PTDM is the new onset of diabetes in patients who previously received an organ transplant. Specific predisposing factors play a role in the development of PTDM like:

          Age

          Body Mass Index (BMI)

          Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection

          Various immunosuppressive therapies

          Ethnicity

Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a complication which takes place after a solid organ transplant, and its incidence is widely variable, ranging from 2% to 53%. Specific types of immunosuppressive regimens (steroids) are related to the highest risk of for developing PTDM like, tacrolimus and corticosteroid. One of the major effects of the transplant is hyperglycemia.

Non-Modifiable Risk Factors:

          Ethnicity

          Age

          Gender of Recipient

          Donor’s Gender

          Family History of Diabetes

 

Modifiable Risk Factors Include:

          Immunosuppressive Therapy

o   Tacrolimus

o   Cyclosporine

o   Corticosteroid

o   Sirolimus

          Obesity

          Metabolic Syndrome

 

Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors:

          Infections

o   HCV

o   CMV

          Impaired Glucose Tolerance: IGT (pre-transplantation)

Every patient in the pre-transplant period must be examined for glucose intolerance and diabetes. The clinical history of the patient will also be important for the identification of risk factors and co-morbidities. The clinical management of patients with PTDM is normally the same as recommended for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).

American Diabetes Association Guidelines

          A1C: 7%

          A1C may also be reported as eAG: 154 mg/dl

          Before a meal (preprandial plasma glucose): 70–130 mg/dl

          1-2 hours after beginning of the meal (Postprandial plasma glucose): Less than 180 mg/dl

          LDL Cholesterol: Less than 100 mg/dl

          HDL Cholesterol: Higher than 40 mg/dl for men and 50 mg/dl for women is good, but an HDL 50 mg/dl or higher helps everyone lower their risk for heart disease.

          Triglycerides: Less than 150 mg/dl

          Blood Pressure: 120/80

          Body Weight Control

Patients with PTDM have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and infections compared to the general population and these problems could compromise the survival period and transplant durability. PTDM is a significant cause of morbidity in transplant patients. The early identification of this condition in addition to a thorough treatment of diabetes and its co morbidities will definitely determine its development.

ADA Glucose

ADA Cholesterol

ADA Blood Pressure

PTDM Journal Article

ptdm

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Managing Diabetes- It’s App-tastic!

Currently, a steadily increasing amount of people are using their phone as a source of knowledge and information. Honestly, it makes sense though. Your phone is always with you, it’s convenient, and it fits in your pocket. But, more specifically it’s helping people manage diseases like diabetes. Diabetes can be a mountain to manage, unless you have the right tools: knowledge and organization. According to the American Diabetes Association, nearly 19 million Americans, or more than 8% of the population, have diabetes. An estimated 7 million more are living with diabetes and have no idea they have it.

As discussed, with the rapid rising rates of diabetes, managing the condition is more important than ever! By incorporating the digital age of electronic devices, Smartphones, and more importantly phone applications, managing your diabetes can become second nature. So, here is an app that I recently came across that has been generating a substantial amount of “buzz”. Allow me to further investigate the characteristics of the diabetes app….

1.     Diabetes Companion by mySugr

This is the #1 diabetes app in 6 countries. The Companion is a charming, sometimes outspoken diabetes manager. The app is a new-twist on a diabetes logbook. It gives you immediate feedback in a fun package and helps you stay motivated for the long haul. You win points for every entry made which helps tame your diabetes “monster”. The goal is to tame your monster every day. Challenges are available to help you set and attain personal goals. It’s all the diabetes management you’re used to, with a side-order of context to make it meaningful.

You can use photos of your food along with smart searches to help make educated decisions on the go, use tags, notes, and locations to describe the situations and circumstances around your data, and choose from a variety of ever changing challenges to push yourself and your therapy to the next level of diabetes management nirvana.

Cost: FREE

Key Features include:

          Quick and easy logging

          Smart search

          Convenient data analysis

          Neat and clear graphs

          Handy photo functions (multiple pictures per entry)

          Exciting challenges

          Snappy reports (PDF, Excel)

          Smile-inducing feedback

          Secure data backup

           Social sharing functions

          Fast multi-device sync

          Practical glucose reminders

          Registered medical device (which is very important when looking into apps that help manage/regulate health-related diseases/illnesses)

mySugr Diabetes Manager App: The Companion

MySugrdm appdm

Sixty Five Roses

Cystic fibrosis is the most common fatal genetic disorder in North America. The disorder produces thick, sticky mucus secretions that may seriously impair the function of multiple organs in the body. Most notably, these organs are the pancreas and lungs. Just a few decades ago, an infant born with CF seldom survived to adulthood. Today, the outlook is much brighter, with adults reaching their 30’s, 40’s, and some even into their 50’s.

Cystic fibrosis has three major consequences: chronic lung disease, pancreatic insufficiency, and abnormally high electrolyte concentrations in the sweat. Chronic lung disease develops because the airways in the lungs become congested with mucus, causing breathings to be strenuous. As the thick mucus stagnates in the bronchial tubes, bacteria multiply there. Lung infections are the usual cause of death in people with cystic fibrosis.

Cystic fibrosis causes some degree of pancreatic insufficiency in all cases, with about 90% of cases serious enough to require enzyme replacement therapy. With aging, damage to the pancreas deteriorates. The thick mucus obstructs the pancreatic ducts and interferes with the secretion of digestive enzymes, pancreatic juices, and pancreatic hormones. Eventually, the pancreatic cells are surrounded by mucus and are gradually replaced by fibrous tissues. Malabsorption of many nutrients including fat, protein, vitamins, and minerals often leads to malnutrition. Additionally, the secretion of insulin may be affected resulting in glucose intolerance and diabetes.

The therapy of cystic fibrosis aims to promote appropriate growth and development and prevent respiratory failure and complications. Treatment includes respiratory, diet, and drug therapy.

Nutrient losses through malabsorption, frequent infections, rapid turnover rate of protein and essential fatty acids, high protein catabolism, and high basal energy expenditures raise energy needs for people with cystic fibrosis to between 120%-150% of the RDA for gender and age. Extra energy is needed simply to breathe. RDs estimate individual energy requirements based on basal metabolic rate, activity level, pulmonary function, and degree of malabsorption.

Obtaining enough energy can be complicated, but because people with CF frequently experience a loss of appetite that is aggravated by repeated infections, emotional stress, and drug therapy. Coughing to clear the lungs may trigger vomiting or reflux of foods from the stomach. Thus the person with cystic fibrosis finds it difficult to take in enough food energy, protein, and other nutrients to meet needs.

NIH- Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic Fibrosis Foundation

cysticfibrosis01cystic-fibrosis-cfcystic-fibrosis

Go Ahead… Pick Your WIC!!

Well, I am currently in full swing of rotations! As of right now, I am rotating in the morning at Taziki’s Mediterranean Café for Institutional Foodservice and at West Virginia’s Monongalia County WIC office in the afternoons.

WIC is available for so many different types of families. The program is available to married and single parents, working or non-working, those receiving other types of aid or not participating in any other programs. Even if you are a grandparent, foster parent, or other legal guardian of a child under the age of 5, you can even apply for WIC.

WIC is available to expecting mothers, up until 6 months after the end of their pregnancy. Infants are categorized in another group and covered from birth – 5 months old. Children are covered from 11 months – 5 years of age. And throughout their childhood, they have appointments every 6 months.

Today marked my “official” first day at the WIC office. Every Monday, Tuesday, and Thursday, the Mon. County WIC schedules their nutrition clinics to see participants for follow-up and new client assessments. This afternoon, I observed a Registered Dietitian at WIC, assess 4 different appointments.

Each participant with a nutrition clinic appointment attends or completes an online nutrition education class 3 months prior to their appointment. The nutrition education classes cover a variety of topics like infant nutrition, nutrition during pregnancy, and shopping on a limited budget. Within the participant’s assessments, WIC RDs ask the parent(s)/proxy, who may also be the primary food preparer, a series of assessment questions. More importantly, these questions should spark a conversation with the participant(s) to try and get the most information about the nutritional status of the client. The suggested assessment questions are broken into three categories: women, infant, and children… How fitting!

Once the participants are seen and finished their clinic appointment, they are given food vouchers which can be used at WIC-approved stores. These vouchers are designated for specific foods through the WIC program. Here are some types of foods that are WIC-approved:

        Milk- Whole milk during infancy, 2% or less during childhood

        Cheese

        Infant Cereal

        Fresh Fruits

        Eggs

        Peanut Butter

        Infant Formula

        Fresh Vegetables

        Juice

        Canned Fish

        Beans

        Whole Grains Breads

        Cereal

        Baby Food

        Soy Milk

Participants receive certain foods based on their individual nutritional needs. If for any reason, mothers are incapable of breastfeeding their infant, WIC provides vouchers for formula. Yes, WIC is major advocate of breastfeeding but, sometimes women are not physically able to do so. Formula that WIC offers is grouped into 3 categories:

1.     Powder: Powder formula that is combined with water, usually cereal formula.

2.     Concentrate: Liquid formula combined with water, usually producing a bubbling effect. This formula may not be best choice for a child with nutritional problems like spitting up or reflux.

3.     Ready-to-Feed: Requires no addition of water.

The WIC is to improve the health of participants by providing the following benefits:

        Nutrition Workshops on a Variety of Topics

        Breastfeeding Support

        Nutritious Foods

        Referrals to Other Health and Social Service Agencies

Overall, I think the first day went really well. I still have a lot to learn and honestly, I’m soaking up the entire experience. I have a list of other projects that I will be completing at WIC so; I’ll have much more to talk about in the upcoming weeks!

A laminated visual that an RD at WIC has on-hand to show clients at appointments.

A laminated visual that an RD at WIC has on-hand to show clients at appointments.

Information that is provided within one of WIC's several pamphlets for participants, based by age of child/infant.

Information that is provided within one of WIC’s several pamphlets for participants, based by age of child/infant.

Soda for Breakfast… This Isn’t A Joke

Soda powerhouse, Coca-Cola, is targeting to boost soft drink consumption in the United Kingdom in an unexpected way. The soft drink corporation wants consumers to swap their morning coffee or tea for soda!

Coca-Cola Enterprises Inc. released a report, just last week, which recognizes numerous ways they can increase sales over the next 5 years in the European region. One of these categories, which is entitled “Complete the Meal” states that breakfast is often referred to as the most important meal of the day. About a quarter of all drinks that are consumed in the U.K. are done so before 10am.

The report clearly states that its attempts are to simulate soft drinks like smoothies, juices, and other on-the-go products. This report was released at the same time that soda consumption has been on the decline in the U.S. – among concerns that soda fuels weight gain. So, to address those concerns Coca-Cola began airing advertisements and commercials that explains their fight against obesity.

The Coca-Cola report, “See The Opportunity”, also states that there is no soda in the U.K. designed as “relaxation” drinks, as there are in Japan and the U.S. Drinks containing melatonin are expected to exceed 300 million liters on consumption in the U.S. by 2014.

Other ways that that Coca-Cola intends on increasing sales is making their products available at pick-me-up at work places, as well as “right” places for teens at places like the movie theaters. In contrast, the “Daytime At Home” category in the report is mainly unused for the soda industry, with water and hot drinks being the most commonly consumed beverages at home.

CBS News

News Daily

soda breakfast

soda bfast

FOG BMP… Translates to Sustainabilit-EE

Approaching the start of the second half of my Institutional Foodservice Production and Management rotation, I’m starting to realize how everything I’ve learned so far is coming full circle. Yesterday I was educated, in more detail, about the benefits and logistics of a FOG BMP program in restaurant foodservice managements related to sustainability. The Chief Operating Officer from FOG BMP Rite-Way Compliance Group, LLC was our guest speaker yesterday and educated us on the importance of this program, how it works, how it affects our restaurant businesses, and community as a whole.

FOGis an acronym that stands for Fats, Oils, and Grease which is commonly found in Food Service Establishments (FSE’s).

BMPstands for Best Management Plan. This program is recommended by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) and mandated by various cities across the country. It entails a written plan of daily practices for food service employees to follow to solve the problems of fats, oils, and grease that enters the public sanitary sewers.

There are 2 types of grease: yellow grease/rendered grease and brown grease/trap grease.

Yellow Grease

        “Fryer” grease

        Highly Profitable

        High yield profitability from rendering companies

Brown Grease

        Grease from food preparation

        Requires service from “pumping” companies

        Lower yield profitability from rendering companies

So, how does FOG negatively impact your FSE?

        Severe fire risk that can cause loss of property and lives

        FOG entering the drains in your facility causes blockages in the plumbing

        Unnecessary drain cleaning costs

        Increased maintenance cleaning costs of grease interceptors

        Odor issues that drive customers away

        Negative public image

        Brand damage

How does FOG negatively impact the public sewer system?

        FOG is the #1 reason for sewer system overflows

        FOG that is allowed to exit the grease interceptor of your FSE (from poor maintenance procedures/neglect) enters directly into the public sewer system

        $29 billion a year is spent on cleaning up the public sewer systems in the U.S.

Fats, oils, and grease usually enter a food service establishment plumbing system through:

        Pre-rinse sink

        Washing wares in the 3-compartment sink

        Floor cleaning

        Equipment sanitation

There are currently 2 different types of devices that all restaurants have that is designed to separate the fats, oils, grease and solids from wastewater. A grease trap is usually located in smaller food service establishments and positioned inside the kitchen near the 3-compartment sink.  A grease interceptor is located in much larger food service operations and is an exterior in-ground tank.

One concept that really caught my attention of the presentation was composting. Our guest speaker mentioned that other restaurant corporations are utilizing this form of sustainability as well. The restaurants use their food waste, which is food materials that are discarded or unable to use, and saved to put in a food compost container. Then, these composts are donated to local farmers to use for fertilizers on their produce. Then, once the produce is grown, the restaurant buys those products from the local farmers. It really promotes local food economy, utilizing local farmers, and minimizing food miles traveled. I think this is a great and innovative model that every restaurant should adopt!

Darden Sustainability

NRA Sustainability

Sustainable Restaurant Assoc.

buyfreshbuylocal

farm to restaurant

SRA local

Darden oil

Food Costs: Actual vs. Ideal

One of the factors that play a substantial role in the success of a foodservice operation is food costs. Food cost is what a menu item costs to prepare. The cost of a chicken entrée with meat, sauce, vegetables and starch is your food cost. Most restaurants run between a 30-40% food cost, this does not include the cost of overhead that needs to get added in before you start making a profit. A major influence on a restaurant’s food costs are the portions that the kitchen staff are creating each recipe and dish with.

One of reasons that franchise chain restaurants are so successful is because they have menu portions under control and regulated. It doesn’t matter if you go to Applebee’s in West Virginia or California, you will probably be served the same food in the same portion sizes. Customers like this consistency. By having a restaurant maintaining predictability, regardless of the location, chain restaurants guarantee strong profit margins.

Poor portion control is one of the leading causes of food cost variances. Consider that your ideal food cost is based on the premise of exact portioning for each menu item, including the portioning of each ingredient within a menu item. If your prep and line cooks have gotten in the habit of “eyeballing” measurements rather than sticking to the exact recipes, chances are your food cost variance could be as much as 5% or more. Proven portion control strategies include the use of portioning scoops, scales and measuring spoons and cups. Pre-portioning can be effective in controlling costs by using portion baggies and a scale to pre-weigh product before stocking the cook line.

Ideal food cost is the standard by which you can compare your actual food cost. If your actual food cost varies to your ideal food cost, then you set about to determine why and where the problem(s) lie. After completing your inventory, you should do a food cost analysis. You should do this at least once a week. The actual food cost is the cost of the food consumed by your customers.  When your actual food cost is higher than your ideal food cost, then you have not optimized your bottom-line profits. You have thrown money out with the window- I guess you could say. However, you won’t know this unless you know what your ideal food cost is.

So, a few things that a restaurant can do to maintain this consistency and reliability, in regards to portion control and essentially saving in food costs are:

          Providing pictures of each plated item. This illustrates the correct portion sizes and proper plating.

          Provide pictures of what each raw material/ingredient should look like after they are prepped. So for example, have pictures of actual sizes of what diced chicken looks like compared to the restaurant’s sliced chicken. This will give employees a visual of how to prep and what to look out for when assembling menu items.

          Pre-portion condiments, sides, and sauces. Every restaurant that I have ever worked in has done this. This is why when you go out to eat a restaurant and you order a salad, the dressing usually comes in small ramekins that have plastic lids. This way you can serve the dressing in-house or for to-go.

          Always have an adequate amount of correct sized storage containers, ladles, and scoops for each menu item as well as a variety of measuring cups, spoons, and scales.

These four prevention measures not only assist in less waste, but they also speed up food preparation and service time – especially at peak times like the lunch-rush or dinner-rush. It also makes certain that your customer gets exactly what they order and what they want, every single time they come to dine at your foodservice establishment.

So, with all of this information being said… How does this apply to my ISPP rotations right now?  Well, at my Institutional Food Service, Production and Management rotation, the entire class was assigned a task. This was to choose a raw material (ingredient) and analyze the actual vs. ideal food costs of that item. And by doing this, see what the restaurant needs to do to improve the usage of this product- whether or not if it was being overused or underused. So, the raw material I chose was chicken breast. This is the most profitable, and popular, raw material that this particular restaurant location utilizes throughout the summer. So, by going through the company’s database with the assistance from management, each student/dietetic intern were able to see what problems existed. And by doing this, new techniques or methods can be adopted to improve the use of these raw materials within the foodservice operation. Fundamentally- creating an even happier customer base.

Manage My Restaurant

What is Ideal Food Cost?

ideal

Food Allergies in Foodservice Rotations

While being in my Institutional Food Service, Production, and Management rotation this summer, a common concern from management has come to my attention. And this concern would be…  Food Allergies!

A food allergy is the body’s immune system reaction to certain foods. Symptoms of an allergic reaction include itching or swelling in or around the mouth, face, and scalp; tightening in the throat; wheezing or shortness of breath; hives; abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhea; loss of consciousness; and even death.

Food allergies are a growing public health concern. As many as 15 million people in the U.S. have food allergies. An estimated 9 million, or 4%, of adults have food allergies. Nearly 6 million, or 8%, of children have food allergies with young children affected the most. Although children allergies to milk, egg, wheat, and soy generally resolve in childhood, they appear to be resolving more slowly than in previous decades, with many children still allergic beyond age 5 years. Allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, or shellfish are generally lifelong allergies.

The top food allergens are categorized into eight food groups. These eight food groups account for 90% of all food-allergic reactions. They include: milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, soy, and wheat. The estimated prevalence among the American population is:

          Milk and eggs: based on data within and obtained outside the United States, this rate is likely to be 1-2% for young children and 0.2-0.4% in the general population.

          Peanut: 0.6-1.3%

          Tree nuts (e.g., walnuts, almonds, cashews, pistachios, pecans): 0.4%-0.6%

          Fish: 0.4%

          Crustacean shellfish (e.g., crab, lobster, shrimp): 1.2%

          All seafood: 0.6% in children and 2.8% in adults

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that food allergies result in more than 300,000 ambulatory-care visits a year among children under the age of 18 years. From 2004 to 2006, there were approximately 9,500 hospital discharges per year with a diagnosis related to food allergy among children under age 18 years. Even small amounts of a food allergen can cause a reaction. Most allergic reactions to foods occurred to foods that were thought to be safe. Allergic reactions can be attributed to a form of mislabeling or cross-contact during food preparation. Food allergy is the leading cause of anaphylaxis outside the hospital setting. Every 3 minutes a food allergy reaction sends someone to the emergency department. This is approximately 200,000 emergency department visits per year, and every 6 minutes the reaction is one of anaphylaxis. Teenagers and young adults with food allergies are at the highest risk of fatal food-induced anaphylaxis. Symptoms of anaphylaxis may recur after initially subsisting and experts recommend an observation period of about 4 hours to monitor that the reaction has been resolved. Individuals with food allergies who also have asthma may be at an increased risk for severe or fatal food allergic reactions. Children with food allergy are 3-4 times more likely to have other related conditions such as asthma and other allergies, compared without food allergies. It is possible to have anaphylaxis without any skin symptoms (no rash or hives). Failure to promptly (i.e., within minutes) treat food anaphylaxis with epinephrine is a risk factor for fatalities.

Chemical contamination can occur when high-acid foods are prepared or stored in metal-lined containers. Poisoning may result if brass or copper, galvanized, or gray enamelware containers are used. Fruit juices should never be stored in gray enamelware with lead glaze or tin milk cans. Cases of poisoning have been recorded that have been attributed to use of improper metal utensils. Sauerkraut, tomatoes, fruit gelatins, lemonade, and fruit punches have been implicated in metal poisonings.

Toxin metals also have been implicated in food poisoning cases. Copper may become poisonous when it is in prolonged contact with acid foods or carbonated beverages. The vending industry voluntarily discontinued all point-of-sale carbonation systems that do not completely guard against the possibility of backflow into copper water lines. Also, food such as meat placed directly on cadmium-plated refrigerator shelves may be rendered poisonous.

Mayo Clinic

NIH

FARE

food allergy in foodservicefood allergy_peanuts allergy

Market Segmentation

Separating customers into market groups provides the basis for successful strategy development in marketing a restaurant. Market segmentation is the process of dividing a total market into groups of people with similar needs, wants, values, and purchasing behaviors. A market is not a place, but rather a group of people, as individuals or organizations. The group needs products and possesses the ability, willingness, and authority to purchase them. A market segmentation is a mixture of individuals, groups, or organizations that share one or more characteristics, which causes them to have similar product needs.

In a homogenous market, a marketing mix is easier to design than one in a heterogeneous group with dissimilar needs. Choosing the correct variable for segmenting market is important in developing a successful strategy. Variables are often broken down into 4 categories for the segmentation process: geographic, demographic, psychographic, and behavioristic.

Variable: Geographic

          Region:

o   Pacific, Mountain, West North Central, West South Central, East North Central, East

          City/metro population:

o   Under 5,000; 5,000-20,000; 20,000-50,000; 50,000-100,000; 100,000-250,000; 250,000-500,000; 500,000-1,000,000; 1,000,000-400,000; 4,000,000 or over

          Density

o   Urban, suburban, rural

          Family life cycle

o   Northern, southern

Variable: Demographic

          Age:

o   Under 6, 6-11, 12-19, 20-34, 35-49, 50-64, 65+

          Gender:

o   Male, female

          Family size:

o   1-2, 3-4, 5+

          Family life cycle:

o   Young, single; young, married, no children; young, married, youngest child under 6; young, married, youngest child 6 or over; older, married, with children; older, married, no children under 18; older, single; other

          Income:

o   Under $10,000; $10,000-$15,000; $15,000-$20,000; $20,000-$30,000; $30,000-$50,000; $50,000-$100,000, $100,000 and over

          Occupation:

o   Professional and technician; managers, officials, and proprietors; clerical, sales; craftspeople, foreman; operatives; farmers; retired; students; housewives; unemployed

          Education:

o   Grade school or less; some high school; high school graduate; some college; college, graduate

          Religion:

o   Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, other

          Race:

o   White, Black, Asian, Hispanic

          Nationality:

o   American, British, French, German, Italian, Japanese

Variable: Psychographic

          Social class:

o   Lower lowers; upper lowers; working class, middle class, upper middles, lower uppers, upper uppers

          Lifestyle:

o   Straights, swingers, longhairs

          Personality:

o   Compulsive, gregarious, authoritarian, ambitious

Variable: Behavioristic

          Occasions:

o   Regular occasion, special occasion

          Benefits:

o   Quality, service, economy, speed

          User status:

o   Nonuser, ex-user, potential user, regular user

          Usage rate:

o   Light user, medium user, heavy user

          Loyalty status:

o   None, medium, strong, absolute

          Readiness stage:

o   Unaware, aware, informed, interested, eager, intending to buy

          Attitude toward product:

o   Enthusiastic, positive, indifferent, negative, hostile

Geographic variables include climate, terrain, natural resources, population density, and subculture values that influence customers’ product needs. Demographic variables consist of population characteristics that might influence product selection like age, gender, race, ethnicity, income, education, occupation, family size, family life cycle, religion, social class, and price sensitivity. Psychographic variables include many factors that can be used for segmenting the market, but the most common are motives and lifestyle. Lifestyle segmentation categorizes people according to what is important to them and their mode of living. A classification system for segmenting customers in terms of lifestyle factors is the VALS: Values and Life-Styles research program. The VALS model is broken down into 3 parts:

          Ideals:

o   Consumers make choices based on their knowledge and principles.

          Achievement:

o   Consumers make choices based on what they perceive will show their success to their peers.

          Self-expression:

o   Consumers make choices based on a desire for social or physical activity, variety, or risk.

segg

The Marketing Mix

As a part of my business class/Institutional Foodservice, Production, and Management dietetic internship rotation, we are required to develop a breakfast marketing campaign. The reason for this project is to incorporate the marketing mix and to essentially improve breakfast sales at the Taziki’s Mediterranean café in the WVU Mountainlair. We are required to speak with the management for advice on what’s working and what’s not working within their breakfast menu and customer foundation. As an ISPP dietetic intern and graduate student, I am also required to apply this information to my Management Quality and Process/Performance Improvement Project, as well.

So, to manage marketing activities, managers must deal with variables relating to the marketing mix and the marketing environment. The marketing mix is defined as the specific combination of marketing elements used to achieve an organization’s objectives and to satisfy the target market. The marketing mix decision variables are product, price, place, and promotion. The marketing environment variables are political, legal, regulatory, societal, economic, competitive, and technological forces.

Product

A product can be a good, service, or an idea. Even though the manufacturing of products is not a marketing activity, research on customer needs and product design is. Product decisions focus on which products to develop, which current products to promote, and which products to discontinue. The term new product means it is a genuine innovation because it has not been served commercially yet. The term new to the chain, like McDonald’s Chicken McNuggets, are really an imitation of a successful product offered by another chain restaurant, like KFC’s chicken nuggets.

Price

Price is the amount of money charged for a product. Price competition has become very common in foodservice operations. Marketing managers usually are involved in establishing pricing policies for different products because consumers are concerned about the value obtained in the exchange. Price is a critical component of the marketing mix and often is used as a competitive tool. Price also helps establish a product’s image. The goal is to set the price at a point that customers perceive value, yet the company achieves the volume and profit it desires.

Promotion

Promotion is used to facilitate exchanges by informing prospective customers about an organization and its products. Promotion is used to increase public awareness about a new product, or to renew an interest in a product that is declining in popularity. The level of advertising in fast-casual dining, like Taziki’s Mediterranean Café, has become quite large.

Place

In marketing, place refers to the location, the place where food or services are offered. Increasingly, food is prepared somewhere else. Food manufacturers are preparing, packaging, and distributing menu items to restaurants and contract companies. Customers are noticing an increase in mobile carts and food trucks. This is giving the public more options when they are away from home- and at an affordable price as well.

mark mix

Microsoft Word - The Marketing Mix