Management versus Leadership?

leadership-versus-management

Managing in the restaurant industry can be a multi-tasking juggling act at times. Anyone who has ever worked in a restaurant knows that it can be, and most likely is fast-pace and requires organization and communication from everyone in each department.

Management is the ability to plan, organize, direct, staff, control, and evaluate the many functions in a foodservice organization for the purpose of serving organizational goals. A manager’s task is to perform all these functions with the finite supply of resources available. These resources include:

          Labor

          Money

          Products

          Equipment

          Time

          Processes and tools

          Energy

When managing a business like a restaurant, the person in this position could demonstrate different styles of management. There are four common management styles:

          Autocratic: Domineering individual who has ultimate authority over employees

          Bureaucratic: Regular procedures, division of responsibilities, hierarchy, and impersonal relationships

          Democratic: Considering and treating others as equals, more participative in the tasks performed

          Laissez-faire: noninterference, letting people do as they decide

But, being an effective manager does not always mean that makes you an effective leader. The roles are much different. Leadership is the ability to motivate and inspire employees to behave in accordance with the vision of an organization and to accomplish the organization’s goals. Good leaders demonstrate these behaviors:

          Provide direction

o   Leaders communicate clearly and ensure that employees know what is expected of them. One of the ways to accomplish this is to discuss roles and responsibilities with everyone in the operation. This way everyone understands the direction given.

          Lead consistently

o   Using the organization’s mission, vision, and values as checkpoints, leaders maintain standards by holding themselves and other accountable for their actions.

          Influence others

o   Gaining cooperation through caring acts, using persuasion to convince others of appropriate behavior, and offering constructive feedback are ways that leaders influence others. Leaders also examine how to build consensus through a “give” and “take” dialogue as well as encouraging superior performance by relating employees’ actions to the organization’s vision.

          Foster teamwork

o   Leaders create functional work teams that build members’ skills. They also establish cross-functional teams to monitor, standardize, and improve work processes across the company. Assigning problems to temporary groups of selected employees is one way to begin developing these teams.

          Motivate others

o   The importance of communication cannot be overstated. Leaders give pep talks, ask their employees for advice, and vocally praise people’s work. It is also really important to keep employees informed and provide them with a sense of belonging by allowing them to solve problems and contribute ideas.

          Coach and develop employees

o   Leaders instruct employees on better ways to perform a task, offer insights to high-potential workers, and ensure that every employee has a development plan. They also seek out learning opportunities for the staff and encourage them to enroll in these programs.

          Champion change

o   Anticipating the need for change, looking for better ways to do things, understanding the link between change and learning, and communicating the benefits of new processes and procedures are all actions of a leader.

So, overall here are the differences you will want to remember:

          Manager:

o   Plans and budgets

o   Oversees staffing

o   Solves problems

o   Maintains order

o   Write reports and other types of materials

          Leader:

o   Charts a course that provides direction

o   Offers guidance and counsel

o   Motivates and inspires a call to action

o   Creates an environment for change

o   Trains and teaches

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mgmt leader

Management1

What Does “Team Growth” Mean to You?

A team, especially one that is in a foodservice operation, has four distinct stages of group development. The four stages of group development were created by Dr. Bruce W. Tuckerman after observation of the different phases in the development and maturity of groups of people.

Forming

The first stage is forming. This is where teams are getting to know each other, as well as learning what will be required of them in order to achieve their assigned goal. This stage is defined by the way the team members approach each other and inspect the limitations of group behavior. The group is also evaluating the manager’s role and leadership. Throughout this stage, the manager takes a larger role in directing the progress of the team. Directing involves telling the group what specifically needs to be accomplished, establishing guidelines, and providing specifics on the five Ws (Who, What, Where, When, Why) and How. At this point, the team members are focusing on being part of a team.

Team Feeling:

          Excitement; Optimism; Pride in being selected; Wondering what role and influence they will have; Anxiety; Questioning why they and other team members were selected

Team Behavior:

          Friendly; Agreeable; Deciding how to accomplish tasks; Determining acceptable team behavior; Information gathering; Handling complaints about the organization; Discussing barriers to the task

Leadership Style:

          Directing

Storming

The second stage is storming. At this point, the reality of the project sets in for the team and various interpersonal struggles begin to surface. Typically, this is the most difficult stage for any team to get through, since power clashes and competition between team members are common and are easily seen here. Besides this realization, team members become impatient with their lack of progress and rely more on individual approaches instead of teamwork. At this time, the manager needs to utilize a coaching style to clarify and explain tasks repeatedly. The manager will need to persuade team members often to work together and refocus their efforts.

            Team Feeling:

          Resistance to approaches different from what the team is comfortable with; Swings in attitudes about the team and project; Questioning many aspects of the task

Team Behavior:

          Arguing; Choosing sides; Perceived “pecking order”; Increased tension; Jealousy; Power struggles; Lack of progress; Loss of interest

Leadership Style:

           Coaching

Norming

The third stage, norming, sees team member settling their differences and developing more cohesive and trusting relationships. The team realizes that they can work together and help each other achieve success. The members understand the team’s needs and accept the team ground rules and the roles that each person plays in achieving the project goals. Conflict decreases as these realizations occur and team members develop more confidence in their ability to work together and accomplish the task. At this time, the manager transitions into a leadership style of supporting the team by providing encouragement, listening more than telling, and promoting team discussions.

            Team Feeling:

          Expressing constructive criticism; Membership acceptance; Relief that things are finally going smoothly; Understanding own contribution; Acceptance of membership

Team Behavior:

          Attempts for harmony; Avoiding conflict; Discussing team dynamics; Sense of common purpose; Establishing and monitoring team rules; Expressing ideas

Leadership Style:

          Supporting

 

Performing

At last but not least, the fourth and final stage is performing. This is where team interdependence is recognized. Team members can analyze and solve problems successfully together. They have accepted each other’s strengths and weaknesses and can adapt to meet the needs of each member. The team becomes very productive and truly adds value to the organizations. At this point, the manager can use a delegating style. The manager no longer needs to provide much direction and can periodically monitor the team’s progress with update meetings.

            Team Feeling:

          Insights into group processes; Understanding of each member’s strengths and weaknesses; Satisfaction with progress; Trusting; Friendly; Having fun

Team Behavior:

          Individual behavior modification; Working through team problems; Close attachment to members; Flexibility; Humor; Ownership of results

Leadership Style:

          Delegating

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team grow

Teamwork

Since my summer in the WVU Individualized Supervised Practice Pathway (ISPP) dietetic internship is primarily focusing on the Institutional Food Service, Production, and Management rotation, I thought it would be fitting that I talk about the importance of teamwork. The importance of teamwork has been proven to be effective in today’s fast-pace foodservice organizations. The use of teams has become an unavoidable solution at tackling some of the pressing challenges that managers face in the food industry. Whether it be from finding ways to reduce costs or to increasing overall sales, all of these issues usually impact more than one department and can benefit from a multi-perspective approach.

The companies or organizations that use teamwork and team-based activities will be better prepared to make necessary decisions to adjust to supply and to meet customer’s demands. Yes, individual employees can make a difference to an organization, but no single person has enough knowledge, creativity, or experience to tackle some of today’s complex problems. Remember, two heads are always greater than one.

Several foodservice systems look to managers to influence teams whenever and wherever possible. Essentially, a team is a group of individuals who operate as a unit for an assigned goal. Teams differ from other work groups because they typically have performance goals to achieve. Team members usually feel some type of accountability for working together to achieve these goals. So, teamwork is the actual state of acting in a collaborative and cooperative effort to create positive results for the achievement of one common goal. For example, my group at Taziki’s Mediterranean Café had one of our group members drop the Business class. So, instead of panicking or blaming each other for common mistakes that we might have made that next day, we worked as a group and everyone helped each other at their designated stations. And it even brought us closer together as a team because we know that all 3 of us rely on each other, as well as the management of course too. And to be honest, I think that we’re performing even better as a team now because we were somewhat forced with a fight or flight situation.

Part of a manager’s responsibilities is selecting team members who skills complement each other. Now, this particular situation the management did not have the choice to choose their teams. But the College of Business and Economics did have the choice to choose the students taking this class. Here is a list of complementary skills needed for teams:

          Technical expertise

          Problem-solving skills

          Interpersonal skills

Technical expertise is a core competency that every team needs. The type of problem that will be assigned to a team dictates to a certain extent what expertise you will need to bring together. Skill in several areas may be needed, depending on the problem at-hand. For example, if Taziki’s Mediterranean Café was researching a new menu item to offer to customers, a team of dietitians, food prep specialists, servers, operations personnel, and marketing specialists would supply the necessary blend of experience to ensure a thorough analysis of what customers want, rather than just a team made of one of these groups listed. Using the knowledge and skills of a cross section of an organization will strengthen the likelihood of a team reaching its goal.

Problem-solving skills are needed by teams to identify the root or underlying cause of a situation or challenge. These skills are also needed to identify potential solutions and trade-offs. Initially, a team needs to have at least one member with this capability. As the team progresses, more team members should develop these important skills.

Interpersonal skills is the third and final category of team skills. Members who communicate effectively and facilitate a group process are critical to the success of a team. Team members who possess these skills help produce an environment of directness and confidence that allows the team to flourish and make progress towards their goal.

Balancing all 3 of these skills is essential f or a manager to consider when working with a team.

Teamwork

TeamWorkMakesTheDreamWork